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Health care professional have published many preventative recommendations for parents, teachers, school administrators, and officials indicating ways to reduce obesity among children in Canada. Peter Nieman suggests that pediatricians should evaluate child's growth on a regular basis by calculating their BMI. This method can be used to monitor any abnormal increased in weight.

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BMI is very appropriate for assessing skin fold thickness Felman et al. If a child's BMI exceeds the 85th percentile, then that is an indication that they are overweight and if his or her BMI exceeds the 95th percentile, then that indicates that the child is severely overweight. Monitoring of the BMI needs to start before the age of three and continue on a regular basis in order for any abnormal growth to be detected right away.

This recommendation can be incorporated into prenatal and child health programs without any huge increase in costs. In order for this to be effective, there needs to be a coordinated effort of policy makers, health professionals, researchers, community leaders, school administrators and parents Ball et al. Canning et al. It is important to establish an age at which unhealthy body weight begins to emerge Canning et al.

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Other general recommendations for preventing childhood obesity include exercising, which can help maintain an ideal bodyweight, but there has been some mixed evidence about the role of exercise in weight loss in children Feldman et al. There are many possible negative effects, for example stunting growth of bones.

Researchers have also suggested that activity programs be reinstated in schools Kempster, Adults need to control the time their children spend in sedentary activities and parents should become role models for the children by participating with their kids in activities like biking, walking, hiking or swimming to increase their child's interest and by eating healthy, well-balanced diets and promoting a healthy pattern of eating for the entire family Oxford County Board of Health, Parents could teach children about eating the right foods and show them that it can be fun to eat a variety of fruits and vegetables by helping them pack their own lunches.

Researchers have also suggested that parents and teachers should never use food as a reward or withhold food as a punishment; this may trigger the child to want the food even more Oxford County Board of Health, Kids love variety, so that needs to be incorporated into physical activities.

This can be done by making them interesting and social by inviting friends and neighbors to join in. Des Spence created three core themes for a possible preventative strategy that would potentially reduce childhood obesity.

His three cores are as follows. First, create safe cycle paths and walking paths to school and insist that parents walk their children to school in all weather conditions. Secondly, have one hour of competitive mixed team sports a days from primary school onwards. Lastly, give healthy free school lunches to all, which would mean that children would eat because no alternative would be offered. Cooking lessons for primary children should also become compulsory. Spence believes that a trial for one year would undoubtedly have a dramatic impact on obesity, fitness and conduct disorders.

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Prevention of childhood obesity can begin prior to conception. This can be done by educating future parents of the risks of high birth weight, maternal diabetes and obesity among family members Anrig, The best way to prevent childhood obesity is to teach children to eat less food that are high in fat by restricting intake of things like sweetened drinks, which are readily available in Canada Medbroadcast, Children should be taught that being physically active on a regular basis is a good thing and that watching television is not Renders et al.

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Experts say that children require one hundred and fifty minutes of active physical activity every week Mediabroadcast, Prevention can be looked at as a cure, if proper leadership is in place and if there is effective communication Renders et al. There have been some programs that have been created and implemented to help decrease the rate of obesity among children. For example, some health care professionals have created a program called "Take Charge" Passehl et al.

This training program is delivered by healthcare professionals and provides education for parents on how to prevent obesity among their children and also how to encourage them to develop healthy lifestyles. This program has focused on abolishing the conventional intervention response, such as, to change the behaviour of overweight children. Restricting or controlling the food that they take in is also important.

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However, when parents attempt to control a child's eating behaviors, the child is more likely to start to eat too much and too rapidly and they may begin to hide, sneak or crave those foods that they are been denied. This cycle is endless and the only way it can be broken is to have set boundaries for both the parent and child. For example, the parents are responsible for planning meals and snacks, preparing food and providing a supportive atmosphere and maintaining limits on grazing between meals and snacks.

Children are responsible for whether they eat or not and how much they want of the good provided by their parents Satter, The "Take Charge" program content embraces the need to avoid restrictive approaches in eating behaviors, since such approaches may actually increase risk of obesity in the future. It has been shown by the American Academy of Pediatrics that excessively controlling parental behaviour, including maternal restraint, verbal prompting to eat at mealtime, attentiveness to non-eating behaviors and perception of daughter's risk of being overweight, can have detrimental effects on children's ability to self-regulate energy intake,.

Parents should intervene with their child in non0judgmental, blame-free manner so that unintended negative impact on the child's self concept is avoided Passehl et al. Recognizing childhood obesity is one thing, but knowing what to do is the major challenge. There is very little medical experience in treating the condition and the medial evidence in treating obese children is not encouraging.

There has been evidence that a person would undergo repeated dieting finds it harder to lose weight with each diet session. The Oxford County Board of Health has suggested that parents of children that are already obese or overweight should aim for their child to grow into their current weight, not to lose weight and give your child the same foods as the rest of the family, do not single them out with different foods and never tell a children that they are "on a diet" or "too fat.

The most important part of an action plan is to focus on a more active lifestyle for children. A study conducted by James et al. The study was conducted at six primary schools in southwest England and there was a focus on educational programs on nutrition throughout one school year. The results included a decrease in the consumption of carbonated drinks by 0. At 12 months the percentage of overweight and obese children increased in the control group by 7. The study concluded that a targeted school-based educational program produced a modest reduction in the number of carbonated drinks consumed, which was associated with a reduction in the number of overweight and obese children James et al.

There have been many multivariable intervention programs that have shown minimal effects on the rates of obesity, the above study mentioned focused on only a single variable: the consumption of carbonated beverages and its effect on obesity. This study provides hope that single-variable intervention maybe successful in limiting obesity and it also draws our attention to the significant contribution of soda consumption on obesity.

Children, parents and schools have been overwhelmed with messages regarding diet, nutrition, exercise.

The above study gives children, parents and school a specific goal, to decrease soda consumption with the benefit of weight reduction. Helping overweight or obese children loose weight has been shown to be effective when there is a team pediatrician, dietician and other healthcare professionals approach.

Nieman also suggests that there are many possible areas of change for overweight and obese children, they can switch from full fat dressings to reduced fat or fat-free varieties and there can be a decrease in the number of food items that are offered as rewards.

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Becoming active is a key factor for weight reduction, but may not be very easy. Taking into account how children think and behave is important when designing physical activity programs. The causes of obesity, numerous recommendations and initiatives have been discussed that could potentially be effective for decreasing the rates of childhood obesity.

The preventative recommendations seem to be simple enough to implement, but it is a matter or getting everyone to work together. In today's society, too many parents are busy with their jobs and focusing on supporting the family that they often forget their children. There has also been an increase in the number of single parent families and in these situations, there are strong effects on the children's health and diet.

Therefore society, especially parents, health professional, teachers and other school officials need to work together to combat this "epidemic. There is clearly a need for health promotion policies in schools concerning diet and exercise, support from food industries to offer more nutritious food, support from both public and private industries to facilitate healthy pregnancies and local and provincial and national funding and legislation to increase access to playground and recreational facilities.

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The long-term benefits of reducing the obesity rates among children are many and include the prevention of obese children from entering adulthood with a long list of diseases. Leadership and advocacy from both health professionals and scientists is required to bring about these changes and bring the childhood obesity "epidemic" to an end.

Risk Factor Obesity (RFO)

Prevention of pediatric overweight and obesity. Pediatrics, Anrig, C. The obese child. Dynamic Chiropractic. Arenz, S. Brest-feeding and childhood obesity-a systematic review. Ball, G. Childhood obesity in Canada: A Review of prevalence estimates and risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes.

Canadian Journal of Applied of Physiology, Bentivegna, M.