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While learning disability , learning disorder and learning difficulty are often used interchangeably, they differ in many ways. Disorder refers to significant learning problems in an academic area. These problems, however, are not enough to warrant an official diagnosis.

Learning Disabilities and Disorders

Learning disability, on the other hand, is an official clinical diagnosis, whereby the individual meets certain criteria, as determined by a professional psychologist, pediatrician, etc. The difference is in degree, frequency, and intensity of reported symptoms and problems, and thus the two should not be confused. When the term "learning disorder" is used, it describes a group of disorders characterized by inadequate development of specific academic, language, and speech skills.

The unknown factor is the disorder that affects the brain 's ability to receive and process information. This disorder can make it problematic for a person to learn as quickly or in the same way as someone who is not affected by a learning disability. People with a learning disability have trouble performing specific types of skills or completing tasks if left to figure things out by themselves or if taught in conventional ways. Individuals with learning disabilities can face unique challenges that are often pervasive throughout the lifespan.

Depending on the type and severity of the disability, interventions, and current technologies may be used to help the individual learn strategies that will foster future success. Some interventions can be quite simplistic, while others are intricate and complex. Current technologies may require student training to be effective classroom supports.

Teachers, parents, and schools can create plans together that tailor intervention and accommodations to aid the individuals in successfully becoming independent learners. A multi-disciplinary team frequently helps to design the intervention and to coordinate the execution of the intervention with teachers and parents. One such difficulty was its belief of central nervous system dysfunction as a basis of understanding and diagnosing learning disability.

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This conflicted with the fact that many individuals who experienced central nervous system dysfunction, such as those with cerebral palsy, did not experience disabilities in learning. On the other hand, those individuals who experienced multiple handicapping conditions along with learning disability frequently received inappropriate assessment, planning, and instruction. The NJCLD notes that it is possible for learning disability to occur simultaneously with other handicapping conditions, however, the two should not be directly linked together or confused.

These disorders are intrinsic to the individual and presumed to be due to Central Nervous System Dysfunction. Even though a learning disability may occur concomitantly with other handicapping conditions e. This evidence is particularly impressive because it converges across different indicators and methodologies.

Teaching Strategies for Students with Learning Disabilities

The central concept of SLD involves disorders of learning and cognition that are intrinsic to the individual. SLD are specific in the sense that these disorders each significantly affect a relatively narrow range of academic and performance outcomes. SLD may occur in combination with other disabling conditions, but they are not due primarily to other conditions, such as intellectual disability, behavioral disturbance, lack of opportunities to learn, or primary sensory deficits.

The issue of defining learning disabilities has generated significant and ongoing controversy.

Learning Disabilities and Disorders -

The DSM-5 does not limit learning disorders to a particular diagnosis such as reading, mathematics, or written expression. Instead, it is a single diagnosis criterion describing drawbacks in general academic skills and includes detailed specifiers for the areas of reading, mathematics, and written expression. In the United States and Canada , the terms learning disability and learning disorder LD refer to a group of disorders that affect a broad range of academic and functional skills including the ability to speak , listen , read , write , spell , reason , organize information , and do math.

People with learning disabilities generally have intelligence that is average or higher. The Section of the Rehabilitation Act , effective May , guarantees certain rights to people with disabilities, especially in the cases of education and work, such being in schools, colleges and university settings.

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act , formerly known as the Education for All Handicapped Children Act , is a United States federal law that governs how states and public agencies provide early intervention, special education and related services to children with disabilities. It addresses the educational needs of children with disabilities from birth to the age of In Canada, the first association in support of children with learning disabilities was founded in by a group of concerned parents.

Originally called the Association for Children with Learning Disabilities, the Learning Disabilities Association of Canada — LDAC was created to provide awareness and services for individuals with learning disabilities, their families, at work, and the community. Since education is largely the responsibility of each province and territory in Canada, provinces and territories have jurisdiction over the education of individuals with learning disabilities, which allows the development of policies and support programs that reflect the unique multicultural, linguistic, and socioeconomic conditions of its area.

In the UK , terms such as specific learning difficulty SpLD , developmental dyslexia , developmental coordination disorder and dyscalculia are used to cover the range of learning difficulties referred to in the United States as "learning disabilities". In the UK, the term "learning disability" refers to a range of developmental disabilities or conditions that are almost invariably associated with more severe generalized cognitive impairment.

In Japan , acknowledgement and support for students with learning disabilities has been a fairly recent development, and has improved drastically in the last [ which? The first definition for learning disability was coined in , and in , the Enrichment Project for the Support System for Students with Learning Disabilities was established. Since then, there have been significant efforts to screen children for learning disabilities, provide follow-up support, and provide networking between schools and specialists. The effects of having a learning disability or learning difference are not limited to educational outcomes: individuals with learning disabilities may experience social problems as well. Neuropsychological differences can affect the accurate perception of social cues with peers.

It has generally been difficult to determine the efficacy of special education services because of data and methodological limitations. Emerging research suggests adolescents with learning disabilities experience poorer academic outcomes even compared to peers who began high school with similar levels of achievement and comparable behaviors. Many studies have been done to assess the correlation between learning disability and self-esteem. These studies have shown that an individual's self-esteem is indeed affected by his or her awareness of their learning disability.

Students with a positive perception of their academic abilities generally tend to have higher self-esteem than those who do not, regardless of their actual academic achievement. However, studies have also shown that several other factors can influence self-esteem. Skills in non-academic areas, such as athletics and arts, improve self-esteem. Also, a positive perception of one's physical appearance has also been shown to have positive effects of self-esteem.

Another important finding is that students with learning disabilities are able to distinguish between academic skill and intellectual capacity. This demonstrates that students who acknowledge their academic limitations but are also aware of their potential to succeed in other intellectual tasks see themselves as intellectually competent individuals, which increases their self-esteem. The causes for learning disabilities are not well understood, and sometimes there is no apparent cause for a learning disability.

How to Get Better at Math

However, some causes of neurological impairments include:. Learning disabilities can be identified by psychiatrists , school psychologists , clinical psychologists , counseling psychologists , neuropsychologists and other learning disability specialists through a combination of intelligence testing , academic achievement testing, classroom performance, and social interaction and aptitude.

Other areas of assessment may include perception, cognition, memory, attention, and language abilities. The resulting information is used to determine whether a child's academic performance is commensurate with his or her cognitive ability. If a child's cognitive ability is much higher than his or her academic performance, the student is often diagnosed with a learning disability.

Although the discrepancy model has dominated the school system for many years, there has been substantial criticism of this approach among researchers. Low academic achievers who do not have a discrepancy with IQ i. Since there have been attempts to create a reference index more useful than IQ to generate predicted scores on achievement tests. If the reading comprehension score is lower in the appropriate statistical sense it would be necessary to first rule out things like vision problems [32]. Much current research has focused on a treatment-oriented diagnostic process known as response to intervention RTI.

Researcher recommendations for implementing such a model include early screening for all students, placing those students who are having difficulty into research-based early intervention programs, rather than waiting until they meet diagnostic criteria. Their performance can be closely monitored to determine whether increasingly intense intervention results in adequate progress.

Those who do not respond adequately to regular classroom instruction often called "Tier 1 instruction" and a more intensive intervention often called "Tier 2" intervention are considered "non-responders. Some models of RTI include a third tier of intervention before a child is identified as having a learning disability.

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  3. Learning Disabilities and Disorders -!

A primary benefit of such a model is that it would not be necessary to wait for a child to be sufficiently far behind to qualify for assistance. In the United States, the reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act permitted states and school districts to use RTI as a method of identifying students with learning disabilities. RTI is now the primary means of identification of learning disabilities in Florida.

The process does not take into account children's individual neuropsychological factors such as phonological awareness and memory, that can inform design instruction. By not taking into account specific cognitive processes, RTI fails to inform educators about a students' relative strengths and weaknesses [34] Second, RTI by design takes considerably longer than established techniques, often many months to find an appropriate tier of intervention.