Guide Symphony No. 3 in D Major, Polish, Movt. 1 - Full Score

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Petersburg on November 6, He composed his Third Symphony in ; the first performance was led by Nikolai Rubinstein in Moscow, on November 19 of the same year.

The United States premiere which was also the first performance outside Russia took place in New York on February 8, This symphony runs about 40 minutes in performance. Tchaikovsky's score calls for piccolo, 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones, tuba, timpani, and strings.

The nickname of this symphony-"Polish"-apparently originated with the conductor August Manns , who spent most of his life in Britain but was actually born into a German family in what is now Poland. Manns, who led the first London performance of Tchaikovsky's Third in , must have delighted in the polonaise rhythms of the finale.

But the polonaise, although originally a Polish dance, had long become "naturalized" in Russia, where the Czars who, after all, ruled over a large part of Poland had adopted it for ceremonial occasions. Tchaikovsky was not entirely happy with his first two symphonies. He had twice revised No. The Second Symphony "Little Russian" , written in , was awaiting revision, not to be completed until With his Third, the composer wanted, above all, to hone his technique and master symphonic form to his own satisfaction.

He said as much in a letter to Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov: "As far as I can see this symphony presents no particularly successful ideas, but in workmanship it's a step forward. He built his symphony mostly if not exclusively with brief, malleable motifs that lent themselves well to extensive development and transformation. The Third is the only Tchaikovsky symphony to have five movements instead of the usual four.


Most commentators explain this by the influence of Schumann's Third Symphony the "Rhenish" , a five-movement work Tchaikovsky loved dearly. In the outer movements, one does find that rhythmic motion in equal note values that is typical of Schumann's music, but Tchaikovsky's inner movements are very different in character from those of his German predecessor. Schumann started his Third in medias res "in the middle of things" with an exuberant opening melody.

Tchaikovsky, on the other hand, has to "earn" that exuberance with an introduction "in the tempo of a funeral march" and a slow transition into the fast tempo. Once established, the "Allegro brillante" proceeds toward a perfectly executed sonata form, with an expressive oboe melody as second theme, and a closing theme reminiscent of a Russian folk dance.

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The development section brings an extremely complex set of key changes as it works through all the themes. A full recapitulation ensues, followed by a triumphant coda. The second movement is entitled "Alla tedesca" "In a German manner" , but its hesitant theme, constantly interrupted by rests, has little Germanic about it. It is a delicate and harmonically sophisticated waltz, with a trio middle section that introduces a fast triplet motion in the woodwind.

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  • When it returns in a new orchestration, the waltz melody retains this faster motion for a while, but then the recapitulation becomes literal. At the end of the movement, the theme disintegrates and vanishes before our ears. An "Andante elegiaco" follows as the symphony's slow movement, which seems to continue the valse triste mood of the "Alla tedesca.

    Because Tchaikovsky never arranged the music from Swan Lake into orchestral suites, conductors are free to make their own selections. The rarely-heard Introduction is the anticipatory music heard just before the curtain comes up, and this is followed by two excerpts from Act I. The Scene , full of excitement and expectancy, introduces Prince Siegfried and his friends drinking wine before a beautiful setting: in the distance are a castle and a bridge across a stream. Next come three excerpts from Act II. The Scene that opens this act, with its plangent and wistful oboe solo, has become some of the most characteristic music of this ballet, and it sets the complex mood here perfectly.

    This is followed by the Dance of the Swans , during which Siegfried and his fellow hunters discover the swans on the forest lake. Tchaikovsky had a particular flair for national dances, and this concert offers the energetic Mazurka , a dance from Poland. This suite concludes with music from the very end of Act IV.

    In this Final Scene the prince enters and the ballet comes to its grand conclusion. Instrumentation: 2 flutes, piccolo, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 2 trumpets, 2 cornets, 3 trombones, tuba, timpani, bass drum, cymbals, castanets, tambourine, tamtam, triangle, glockenspiel, harp and strings.

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    Please use the dropdown buttons to set your preferred options, or use the checkbox to accept the defaults. Tchaikovsky was consciously moving away from his brief but close involvement with the Russian national composers, finding their dogmatic approach too restricting. Instead of a heavy dependence on folk themes, which may be colourful in themselves but tend to be self-contained, Tchaikovsky is here working with material that is on the surface less distinctive, but which allows for more elaborate development and more subtle relationships between themes and movements.

    Halting phrases in the dominant key build up suspense with a gradual acceleration towards the main body of the movement, whose three themes are treated with many inventive rhythmic shifts. The three central movements are more lightly scored.

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